India in Post independence Era

The history of India dates back to the Indus Valley Civilization. India has witnessed the influence of a numerous invaders throughout its history. First were the Aryans, in ancient period. Their influence is known as the Vedic period. India went through a lot of socio � political changes in the following years. This period marks the rise of religious leaders such as Mahavira and Buddha. A number of dynasties ruled India for the next millennia. The Delhi Sultanates established the Muslim rule in India. India was introduced to the different types art and architecture in this era. The following Mughal rulers added to those influences. Guru Nanak established a vibrant realisation of God that gained many followers. In the 18th century, the decline in the Mughal rule shifted the balance of power to the British East India Company. In 1757, the British East India Company established its authority in India as a political power with the victory at Plassey and Buxar. The Great Mutiny of 1857 changed the course of Indian history once again. The British Crown took over the administration, until the India gained independence in 1947.

The post independence era can be divided into each decade,

1947�1950: India gained its independence in August 15th, 1947. The period was marked by tumultuous events, such as the partition, and the first Indo�Pak war broke out. The Constitution of India came to effect on the 26th January 1950, and India became a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.

1950 � 1970: The first election was held in the year 1952, and the Congress won with a large majority. Jawaharlal Nehru was elected Prime Minister for a second term. He carried on with his socialistic approach of administration. India experienced a lot of development in this period. The incorporation of the IITs across India, complete primary education drives were done during this period. He introduced reforms on taxation, minimum wages, and nationalization of industries. Nehru also played an important part in the Non Aligned Movement. The States Reorganization Act of 1956 was passed on the recommendation of the States Reorganization Commission. The state of Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, were created. Goa was annexed from the Portuguese. India also fought a short war with China in 1962, regarding the Himalayan border. Following the death of Nehru in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri became the Prime Minister of India. In 1965, India fought the second Indo � Pak war. The Tashkent Agreement was signed declaring the end of the war. The sudden death of Lal Bahadur Shastri in Tashkent led to the rise of Indira Gandhi as one of the most prominent prime ministers of India.

1971 � 1980: In 1971, Indira Gandhi was re-elected with huge majority. The third Indo � Pak war was fought regarding the liberation of the East Pakistan, and formation of Bangladesh. In this period the banks were nationalized, the introduction of the economic and industrial reforms. India tested it first nuclear weapon in 1974. This decade also experienced the introduction of Green Revolution, with improved seed variety, better funding, and Operation Flood for enhancing the milk production. These movements made India self-sufficient in food production.

In 1975, President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declared an emergency, on the advice of Mrs. Indira Gandhi. Strikes and protests by the anti Congress ripped the country, voicing out their dissent against the dictatorship of Mrs. Gandhi. The emergency continued until the year 1977. In the election of 1977, the Congress lost it seat of power to Janata Party, which was a coalition of anti congress parties.

1980-1990 - In 1980, the Mrs Gandhi came back to power with landslide victory in the polls. She ordered the Operation Blue Star, to flush out Sikh insurgents that had been her former supporters, from the Golden Temple. She was assassinated in October 1984. Rajiv Gandhi, the eldest son of Mrs. Gandhi, won the next election with overwhelming majority. He was the youngest Prime Minister India ever had. Rajiv Gandhi introduced a number of reforms to boost up the development process. The reforms encouraged foreign investments, decreased the government restrictions on overseas currency, and decreased licensing. These reforms paved the way for the rapid economic developments in the 90s. In his regime, sectors like telecommunication and information technology experienced huge expansions. The Janata Dal came to power for brief period in 1989, under the leadership of V.P. Singh and later Chandra Shekhar.

1990 onwards: This decade was the turning point of the economic conditions of India. In 1991, the Congress party came back to power, under the leadership of P.V. Narasimha Rao. The economic policies of 1991, opened up the markets for international trade, ending the era of economic protective polices.

The BJP emerged as the majority party in the 1996 elections, but the government under the leadership of Prime Minister A.B.Vajpayee lasted only for 13 days. After a brief period, BJP came back to power in 1998. The second series of underground nuclear tests were conducted by India in 1998. In 1999 after the failure of the coalition, BJP was re elected and came to power in 1999 as the National Democratic Alliance. India fought the Kargil War, due to the infiltration of the Pakistan backed insurgents in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The attention of United States towards the evil regimes in the neighboring regions starting from September 11, 2001 was a blessing for India. The superior fire power of the US reduced the hostile activities of various terror groups that had previously operated with impunity in the region and a ceasefire was established. Weak and ineffective civilian government of Pakistan continues to be a threat not only to India, but the entire world.

In 2004, the Congress party came back to power under the leadership of Sonia Gandhi. Dr. Manmohan Singh was selected to be the Prime Minister. He continued with the economic development of India. However various large scale corruption scandals and a rule by proxy by Sonia Gandhi made for an ineffective democracy. People voted BJP back into power with an absolute majority.

India is now well on its way to be an economic superpower. It is a major player in the Information Technology and Business Process sector and continues to rise in the Medical Treatment field. These sectors provide good jobs to educated Indians all over the country. The stability and freedoms of India gives its populace an opportunity to strive for greater goals.

Make in India - Policy to transfer India into a Global Innovation and Industrial center.

MyGov - A partnership of the Government with the people for good governance and people driven action. Examples: Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, Ganges River Cleanup.

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