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Geography of Punjab

Geographically, Punjab is divided into two regions: the Shivalik Strip and the Sutlej-Ghaggar Plain. (Interactive map of Punjab)

Shivalik Strip

This region covers the outer range of the Shivalik Hills and consists of conglomerates, clays and silts-all having the character of fluviatile deposits of rivers and stream. The low range of the Shivalik Hills separates the Himalayas from the plains. The Shivalik region covers the eastern most areas of Ropar, Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur districts and runs like a wall, north-west to south-east, separating the Sirsa and Una valleys of Himachal Pradesh from the plain areas towards the west.

Sutlej-Ghaggar Plain

The Punjab plain is a part of the great Indo-Gangetic plain which is a synclinal basin formed by the elevation of the Himalayas. The rivers of the region indicate that the plain is the result of recent deposition and these very rivers have formed the plain. The Punjab plain lies between 180 and 300 meters above sea level. It is higher near the Shivalik Hills but slopes away from them. The tract covering central Punjab ranges between 230 and 270 metres above sea level while western Bhatinda and Ferozepur districts lie below 230 metres above sea level. The land slopes from east to west. The gradient is much more in the east than in the west.

Agriculture is the most important constituent of the primary sector including forestry, animal husbandry, mining and fishing. Around two-third of the food grains procured annually in the country come from this state.



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