History of Assam

The Early Assam

 Assam has a long history with its evidence of human settlement from all periods in Stone age. The earliest ruler was named Mahiranga. He was followed by many like Hatakasura, Sambarasura, Ratnasura and Ghatakasura. Naraka removed this line of rulers and established his own dynasty. Naraka’s victory marked the beginning of sanskritization in this region. Kalika Purana mentions about Narakasura, as slained by Krishna. Mahabharata mentions about his son Bhagadatta who fought for Kauravas in the battle of Kurukshetra.


Medieval Period

 Known as “Kamapura” or “Kamata”, Assam was ruled by many dynasties. Popular among them was the Varman Dynasty. During the reign of the great ruler, Bhaskaravarman of this dynasty, the Chinese traveler, Xuanzang visited the region, and has recorded the details. Later, many other dynasties, the Kacharis, the Chutias, belonging to the Indo-Tibetan groups ruled the region.

The Ahoms, a Tai group, ruled eastern Assam for nearly 600 years (1228-1826), created a greater impact in the region. The Koch, a Tibeto-Burmese/Dravidian group, established their sovereignty in 1510. The Koch kingdom later divided into two where the western kingdom became a vassal of the Moghuls, whereas the eastern kingdom became an Ahom satellite state.

Aurangzeb’s Governor, Mir Jumla occupied Gargaon, the then capital of Ahoms.  Rebellious Guerrilla attacks forced Jumla’s army to leave the region. An attempt by the Moghuls under the command of Raja Ram Singh resulted in the victory for the Ahoms at Saraighat (1671) under the Ahom general Lachit Borphukan.


Colonial Era 

With the Burmese approaching East India Company's borders, the First Anglo-Burmese War ensued, in which Assam was one of the sectors. The war ended with the Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826, and the East India Company took control of the region. Under British Administration, Assam became a part of the British India province called the Bengal Presidency. Later during 1905-1912, Assam was separated and erected as a separate province of Assam.


Post Independence 

After Independence in 1947, Assam became one of the seven sister states of India. The capital of Assam, which was in Shillong, was moved to Dispur. On February 27, 2006 the cabinet of ministers in Assam adopted a proposal to change the name of the state to Asom.



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